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Introduction of Good Practices


Internationally and domestically, ESABII member countries have undertaken conservation activities in order to preserve endangered species. Here we introduce some of these initiatives (case studies) being pursued in the related countries of ESABII.


Because tigers are at the top of the food chain as predators of the forest ecosystem, it is considered that they are a good indicator of biodiversity for measuring the functionality and sustainability of ecosystems. Various species of tiger once ranged widely across Asia, from Turkey in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. Over the past 100 years, tigers have disappeared from southwest and central Asia, from two Indonesian islands (Java and Bali) and from large areas of Southeast and Eastern Asia. Tigers have lost over 93% of their historic range. It is estimated that 100,000 tigers lived in the wild in the early 20th century, however their population has declined due to the illegal trade in high-value tiger products and habitat loss and fragmentation due to the conversion of forest land to agricultural land, commercial logging, and human settlement. Now it is estimated that the wild adult tiger population is approximately 4,000.


The orangutans consist of the two exclusively Asian species of extant great apes and are currently found only in the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra. They are threatened due to logging and forest fires, as well as fragmentation of their habitat by roads. Hunting is also a major problem as is the illegal pet trade. The Bornean orangutan population has declined by 50% in the past 60 years, and the Sumatran orangutan population has declined by 80% in the last 75 years. As an example of endangered species conservation, orangutans are considered a symbol species for many conservation measures, and in fact, many orangutan conservation projects are being promoted by governments and NGOs.


The Black-faced Spoonbill is only found in East Asia. It is estimated that approximately 2,000 individuals inhabit this region. For the conservation of this species, it is necessary to conserve their wintering grounds and breeding grounds, as well as the feeding grounds along their migration routes in Vietnam, Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, China and Japan. Research projects such as a simultaneous international census and breeding habitat surveys using questionnaires have been carried out to develop a conservation network on the Black-faced Spoonbill by the related countries and NGOs. These activities provide a good example for the conservation of other endangered migratory species.